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Advances in the application of plant polyphenols

2015-9-2 10:23:11    from:admin    click count:2772
Plant polyphenols are phenolic molecules collectively having a plurality of hydroxyl groups, also known as tannins, is the most important secondary metabolites in plants, mainly in the bark, roots, leaves and fruit plants, the content behind cellulose, hemicellulose and lignin. Polyphenol structure has unique physical and chemical properties, with the reduction to capture the activity of free radicals and many derivatized reactivity, etc., so widely used in food, medicine, cosmetics, agriculture, environment and so on.
1, used in food industry
Plant polyphenols in the food industry, often used as a natural food additive, purposefully to improve food quality, improve food production process. At present, the food industry in the application of more mainly tea polyphenols, grape, persimmon, apple taken.
Plant polyphenols in the food industry is mainly used as an antioxidant, antiseptic, clarification and the like.
Plant polyphenols as natural extracts, by the people's favorite. The Japanese call it following the sixth nutrients (dietary fiber) after the seventh class of nutrients.
1.1 is used as natural antioxidants
Plant polyphenols is a kind of antioxidant and free radical scavenging activity substance, which can provide active phenolic hydroxyl proton, capture free radicals due to the formation of oil and other auto-oxidation, so that a chain reaction interrupted, thus preventing automatic oxidation of oil, and its antioxidant free radical itself form a stable state, so the grease and greasy food has a good antioxidant, the antioxidant effect is even higher than BHA (tert-butyl hydroxy anisole) and BHT (2,6- di-t butyl-p-cresol) and other synthetic antioxidants, which can effectively avoid the possible toxic effects of artificial additives.
1.2 is used as a preservative
Plant polyphenols in neutral and weakly acidic pH value, for a variety of bacteria, fungi, yeasts have significant suppression. This is usually neutral or acidic food preservation is very favorable.
Polyphenols of tea polyphenols against Staphylococcus aureus, Escherichia coli, Bacillus subtilis and others have a strong inhibitory effect, a low concentration of polyphenols solution sprayed on fresh fruits and vegetables, can inhibit bacterial growth, achieve preservation preservative The purpose of. Tea polyphenols on meat and pickled products with good shelf anti damage effects, especially for canned food in heat-resistant bacteria spores have significant inhibition and killing effect, as a preservative widely used in animal fat, oil-based foods, baked goods, pastries, dairy products, meat, aquatic products Preservation of food.
1.3 used for wine and beverage clarifying agent
Plant polyphenols as alcoholic and beverage clarifying agent, its principle is a phenolic hydroxyl amine hydrogen phthalate connected through health and protein to form complexes and aggregation precipitation, while trapping and removal of other suspended solids.
Use the juice in the presence of tannins (or the amount of added tannins), adding an appropriate amount of gelatin to form gelatin tannate complex, with sedimentation complexes, suspended particles in the juice also will be wound down Shen. General Approximately 10g 100L juice tannins, 20g gelatin, at 8 ~ 12 ℃ standing 6 ~ 10h. The best method to clarify Zhu Jie research results cider wine gelatin - mixing clarification tannins, light transmission rate of 95.3%. Specific ratio: 10% gelatin solution dosage 3.75 mL / 1L (wine), 6% tannin solution dosage 1 mL / 1L (wine).
2 applications in medicine
The pharmacological activity of the plant polyphenol is a comprehensive reflection of its interaction with plant polyphenols and antioxidant and a metal ion network and properties such as proteins, enzymes, polysaccharides, nucleic acids and other organisms, specific pharmaceutically active is reflected in its antioxidant , antibacterial, anti-viral, anti-cancer change, the prevention of cardiovascular disease and so on.
2.1 Antioxidant
Modern medical research has proved that many diseases of aging, such as tissues and organs and so on and excess free radicals. Polyphenols reduced by reduction in the oxygen content of the environment, at the same time as the hydrogen donor and the environment combine radicals, scavenging free radicals, and on the radical-induced damage biological macromolecules play a protective role.
2.2 antibacterial, antiviral
In recent years, people polyphenols inhibit the human pathogenic microorganisms given high attention. Studies have shown that: grapes, apples, hops and Chinese green tea polyphenols can inhibit the growth of Porphyromonas gingivalis Aeromonas; the wine and plant polyphenols inhibit H. pylori toxin and treatment of diseases caused by; gallic polyphenols extract on Streptococcus mutans was inhibited. Currently, polyphenols bacteriostatic application example is in the prevention of dental caries, Dan, bear fruit, tea, betel nut tannin and apple polyphenol has a very strong anti-caries function.
Plant polyphenols antiviral and antibacterial properties of certain similarities that can be used to fight AIDS. According to reports, a low molecular weight hydrolyzed tannins, especially dimeric ellagic tannin do oral agents to suppress HIV and prolong the incubation period; when agrimonine at a concentration of 1 ~ 10μg / mL, can play the strongest growth inhibition of AIDS virus HIV Effect.
2.3 Anticancer
Plant polyphenols also have anti-tumor activity against various aspects of the different stages of cancer suppression, but also an effective anti-mutagen mutagenesis can be reduced to improve the ability to repair chromosome accurate, thus improving the body's immune cells, inhibit tumor cell growth.
Some statistics show that Japan's domestic consumption of more green areas, a low incidence of gastric cancer. Grape seed extract on cultured human breast cancer cells 1 to 3 days, cell proliferation inhibition rate of 90% to 100%, with a dose-effect relationship. Cai et al studied 112 kinds of herbal plants polyphenol content, the relationship between antioxidant activity and anti-cancer, results showed that the antioxidant polyphenols are major constituents of such plants, including phenolic acids, flavonoids, tannins, coumarin with anti-cancer-related medicinal plants is an important source of natural antioxidants and effective chemopreventive agent.
 2.4 prevention of cardiovascular disease
 Hemorrheology reduce blood lipid concentration, platelet dysfunction is an important cause induced cardiovascular and cerebrovascular diseases. Plant polyphenols can inhibit platelet aggregation adhesion, induced vasodilation and inhibition of lipid metabolism enzymes help prevent coronary heart disease, atherosclerosis and stroke and other common cardiovascular and cerebrovascular diseases.
Polyphenols prevent cardiovascular disease highlights its anti-hypertensive. Such as grape seed can significantly reduce high cholesterol diet mouse serum lipoproteins and low-density lipoprotein (LDLC) concentration; betel nut tannin suffering from hypertensive rats whether oral or intravenous injection can reduce blood pressure; persimmon tannin, rhubarb tannin, tea tannin, although not buck, but because it can eliminate free radicals, it is possible to reduce cerebral hemorrhage, cerebral infarction possibility.
In addition, the Japanese pharmaceutical industry in-depth study of plant polyphenols on inhibition of toxin found persimmon tannin Taiwan cobra, Philippine Cobra, Indian Cobra and other toxins have strong detoxification. Its main function is to inhibit the activity of the venom protein. Pomegranate rind and betel nut having anthelmintic efficacy, ingredient polyphenols have a synergistic effect deworming.
3 application in agricultural production
3.1 System chelate fertilizer
Plant polyphenols have good coordination chemistry performance, such as Zn, Cu, Mn and other chelating and other trace elements, chelated fertilizer made. American western hemlock with skin tannin extract prepared chelated fertilizer on apple tree spraying experiments to achieve results. Larch tannin by degradation and hydrophilic treatment, iron, manganese, copper ions react with the water-soluble chelates prepared to handle Apple and ginkgo tree, make apple production, ginkgo leaf production.
3.2 resistance to pests and diseases
    It can play the role of biological pesticides and growth hormones similar in agriculture. Polyphenols on crops inhibition of bacterial pathogens have unique, where Gallic catechin nodule disease, vegetables, beans, tomato Rot has a strong immunity, to spot spores sprout rice field with a strong inhibition.
Phenols can also resist pests. Studies have shown that high tannin content of species of beetles resistance is higher. Cotton tannins flavonoids inhibit pest on cotton variety.
3.3 suppress soil nitrification
Nitrification is caused by loss of nitrogen, an important factor in environmental pollution and affect crop quality and yield. It showed that tea polyphenols can inhibit nitrification inhibition rate reached 31.12% in 8 days ~ 92.16%, but also can inhibit the growth of ammonia oxidizing bacteria and nitrite-oxidizing bacteria. Polyphenols added more amount of ammonia oxidizing bacteria and nitrite-oxidizing bacteria reduce faster. Compared to some of the toxicity, residual, easy to pollute the environment and the high cost of nitrification inhibitors, polyphenols have potential value in agricultural production.
4 in ecological and environmental protection Application
Polyphenols containing a phenolic hydroxyl group and other active groups, with a variety of metal ions complexation and formation of a precipitate, reduce heavy metal toxicity, and therefore can be used to repair the plant polyphenols that heavy metal contamination of soil and water.
4.1 removal of toxic heavy metals in waste water
Use Valonia tannin removal of toxic heavy metals (Pb, Cd, Cr, Mn, etc.) and found that the removal of good results under neutral or alkaline conditions. Larch tannin can effectively remove Cu2 +, Fe2 +, Zn2 + ions, under optimum conditions of the reaction, the removal rate can reach 55% to 90%, it has to use less, effective, low-cost, non-toxic, tasteless, etc. Features for wastewater treatment, will not cause secondary pollution.
4.2 Sorption of Heavy Metal Contaminated Soil
Who studied the plant polyphenol absorption in soil contamination effects of Cu desorption results show that plant polyphenols significantly promote soil retention of heavy metals Cu, Cu inhibit the dissolution action, in order to plant polyphenols situ immobilization of heavy metals in contaminated soils The application provides a new way.
4.3 alleviate acid plant Aluminum Toxicity
In the acid aluminum stress environment, low dose polyphenols (20μg) treatment can relieve barley, wheat acid aluminum toxicity. This brings hope for the prevention and treatment of aluminum toxicity in acidic soils, as well as the application of plant polyphenols green resources has opened up new avenues.
5 Conclusion
As a class of plant polyphenols abundant renewable green resources, not only in agriculture, environment, food, medicine, chemical and other fields is important, and closely related to people's daily lives, with the polyphenols in the chemical industry, building materials, oil applied research in mining, daily chemical products and other different areas getting more results, which will become an important resource for human use.
Domestic research on plant polyphenols are active, but in general is relatively backward, to the importance of plant polyphenols awareness and utilization is lacking.