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Flavonoids

2015-9-2 10:46:36    from:admin    click count:2253

one. introduction

Flavonoids and polysaccharides, alkaloids, are the three major natural products of plant origin.
Flavonoids found a long time ago. But the use of flavonoids in the history is not long.
Flavonoids as a health product for the first time the attention of the international pharmaceutical industry in the late 1980s. French company pioneered the health bioflavonoids new "Pycnogenol" (Pycnogenol). It is a mixture of pine bark flavonoids from the growth of the French Mediterranean coast extracted. Since prevention and treatment in Western countries is very common coronary heart disease and myocardial infarction and other cardiovascular disease, so the situation is very prosperous after the sale. After the listing for 10 years, clinical researchers continue to find new uses for Pycnogenol has a lot of interest, including anti-asthmatic, prevent cerebral arteriosclerosis caused by long-term smoking and lowering blood pressure and cerebral thrombosis in the role.
According to scientists, the French production of extremely complex biological Pycnogenol contains flavonoids, which include: catechin, epicatechin, Paclitaxel, proanthocyanidins and monomeric, diploid, triploid and times mixture. It is these complex bioflavonoids form the basis of the pharmacological effects of Pycnogenol diversification.
Second, what are flavonoids?
Flavonoids actually a very wide coverage of total name. It has been identified flavonoids its chemical structure at least 4000-5000 species, including the well-known old products rutin, polyphenols (the "catechins" as the representative), soy isoflavones (soybeans genistein Su as the representative), hesperidin and quercetin.
A series of C6-C3-C6 compounds flavonoids refers to two benzene rings (A- and B- ring ring) through the central three carbon-bonded to each other formed. Mainly refers to the compound 2-phenyl chromone the nucleus.
Natural plant flavonoids much for the basic structure of derivatives, and many more glucoside form. In addition to the common O- glycoside, there are - glycosides, such as puerarin. Flavonoids have been found in plants up to more than 5,000 species, but the study found that because of the different structure of these flavonoids exhibit some biological activity, others do not. It is now accepted that alpha flavonoid molecules center, beta- unsaturated pyrone is the key having various biological activities. The various substituents A, B, C three ring determines the specific physiological function of different flavonoid molecules.
Actually chemical classification flavonoids extremely complex, including: flavones, flavonols, flavanones, flavanols, isoflavones, anthocyanins, proanthocyanidins, etc.
Recently, Western scholars have pointed out: the similarity of their chemical structure of a plant-derived bioflavonoid can be roughly divided into four categories namely: the proanthocyanidins; quercetin; citrus bioflavonoids, green tea polyphenols. As a result not only easy to categorize, but also to facilitate the development and utilization of products.
    Third, the nature of the distribution of flavonoids
Flavonoids are generally distributed in the plant kingdom, has been found in natural flavonoids have more than 2000 kinds of flavonoids rarely found in algae, fungi, and bryophytes mostly contain flavonoids, gymnosperms also contain flavonoids, but the type less, mainly for double flavonoid; a flavonoid component most concentrated angiosperms, which Leguminosae, Rosaceae, Rutaceae, Umbelliferae, Ericaceae, Primulaceae, Labiatae, Scrophulariaceae, whips Caoke, Asteraceae, Polygonaceae, buckthorn, Ilex, Myrtaceae, Moraceae, Euphorbiaceae, tail section, orchids, sedges and ginger Services Section of enrichment. Commonly used Chinese medicine containing flavonoids have Huaimi, astragalus, arrowroot, Citrus, Citrus aurantium, ginkgo biloba, hawthorn, chrysanthemum, chrysanthemum, Epimedium, Shegan like. The animal and human diets more beans in flavonoids. Mainly soy isoflavones and glycoside.
Source fruits of flavonoids include rutin (high levels of buckwheat, buckwheat content is 10 times more common buckwheat) and hesperidin, mainly found in citrus fruits. The best food sources are rose hips, buckwheat leaf, citrus fruits, berries, broccoli, cherries, grapes, papaya, cantaloupe, plums, tea, red wine and tomatoes. Cucumber also contains special bioflavonoids, it can prevent cancer-causing hormones and cell binding.
Many foods in nature contain a certain amount of flavonoids, mainly found in citrus fruits, in which higher levels are rosehips, buckwheat leaf, citrus fruits, berries, broccoli, cherries, grapes, papaya, cantaloupe, plums, tea, red wine and tomatoes. Cucumber contains a special bioflavonoids, which can prevent hormone binding to cells of cancer.
Fourth, what are known flavonoids?
Resveratrol
In fact since the French flavonoids health Pycnogenol debut new, long neglected bioflavonoids great attention since pharmaceutical industry. The most obvious example is the development and utilization of resveratrol in red wine from France has become the new hot spot nineties quality medical care market. As we all know from years of French red wine so its nationals myocardial infarction mortality rate is far lower than Europe and the United States. The reason is the presence of large amounts of resveratrol in red wine. This was also a kind of bioflavonoids. Further study found that: Resveratrol is found in the skin and seeds of red grapes among. Currently produced after the juice grape skins, seeds as raw material extraction of resveratrol has become the prevention of coronary heart disease, arteriosclerosis selling health food products.
Green tea polyphenols
Green tea polyphenols also compounds called flavonoids. The latest research confirmed: people after ingestion of green tea polyphenols can not only eliminate the body of harmful free radicals physiological metabolites, can activate the body's detoxification system and immune system function. Therefore, people who regularly drink green tea not susceptible to allergic diseases and cancer. Another effect of green tea polyphenols are fat, lowering blood pressure and preventing stroke. Green tea polyphenols in the international market has become the best-selling health food new materials, only the United States each year on sales of at least hundreds of millions of tablets "green tea polyphenols" capsule.
The new health-care products in flavonoids have anti-cancer screening has been underway in recent years. Scientists have already found that the catechins in green tea and tea tannin (tannic acid) have excellent inhibition of tumor growth. According to the latest foreign reports, naringin and hesperidin and other bioflavonoids from citrus in excellent inhibition of breast cancer cell growth. In addition, four kinds of non-citrus bioflavonoids sources (including: Bega result, galangal refined, genistein and quercetin) whether used alone or in combination had the effect of inhibiting the growth of breast tissue.
Ellagic acid
Ellagic acid is a widely present in strawberries, grapes, apples, cranberries, blackberries and walnuts in flavonoids. New research shows that: ellagic acid can inhibit experimental animals due to chemical carcinogen-induced lung cancer, liver cancer, skin cancer and esophageal cancer and other diseases (experimental animals orally ellagic acid for 25 weeks reduced tumor volume reduction of 54%). Future sources of readily available ellagic acid is expected to be developed into anti-cancer drug, and the best-selling cancer drug "Taxol" to compete against.
Five plants which are rich in flavonoids?
Grape seed
OPC has about 80% to 85%, OPC is a former anthocyanins, is classified as a family of bioflavonoids, proanthocyanidins main feature is its antioxidant capacity, stable collagen (collagen) maintain elastin (elastin). Collagen, elastin are two important proteins, there is a close relationship with the connection between blood vessels and muscle tissue. OPC can successfully enter the blood-brain barrier, capture free radicals produced by the brain, because it can lead to prevention of degenerative brain diseases such as stroke. So OPC is a potent vascular guardian, to help maintain the body's circulatory system, now widely used in the prevention of disease with heart disease and hypertension treatment.
OPC also can block UV damage and reduce cortical collagen and elastic fibers are destroyed to prevent the collapse of skin wrinkles, protect the skin from aging damage, further to achieve the effect of anti-aging skin
OPC is the main source of peel and stone, and these are the things we usually give up some quality OPC more from seasonal and not always available to eat fruit, such as grapes, blue berries, Mei Li, etc. So do not spit grape skin grapes is recommended, in order to obtain superior oxidation function of OPC, enhanced health benefits.
Propolis
Various ingredients contained in propolis, flavonoid-rich multi-vehicle is a major feature of propolis flavonoids can be divided into about 20-30 species, we have strengthened the role of the cell membrane is the cell functional activity of all, let bacteria virus is difficult to immersion, to prevent infectious diseases, malignant enzyme inhibition, to prevent the formation of carcinogenic substances, and promote the synthesis of collagen, diabetes, scurvy, hypertension and circulatory obstruction lights are very effective. Its partial cause can prevent prevent allergy symptoms of ammonia free, prevent bronchoconstriction, skin rash and allergic diseases, has let parasympathetic nervous tissue relaxation, there is compression effect, for stomach ulcers due to stress-induced neuropathic ailments, as well as an antibacterial, wound healing and anti-inflammatory and other effects.
Six flavonoids what function?
Flavonoids can regulate blood fat, lower blood viscosity, improve serum lipids and prolong the life of red blood cells and enhance hematopoietic function, prevention of cardiovascular disease; inhibiting the growth of HL-60 leukemia cells and dissolve the cancer cells; can effectively remove the body of free base (Free Reaical) and toxin, prevent and reduce the incidence of disease; anti-inflammatory, anti-allergic, broad-spectrum antimicrobial, antiviral activity. In pine bark extract as an example, the following functions:
1, with free radical scavenging, antioxidant effect.
2, anti-thrombosis, heart brain blood vessels to protect the anti-tumor, anti-inflammatory antimicrobial effect
3, the lifting of alcohol poisoning, liver Liver and other effects
4, with detoxification, rheumatism, strong bones and other effects
5, the role of regulating immunity
6, anti-menopausal syndrome
7, anti-bacterial, anti-inflammatory and anti-allergic effects
8, antiviral
Seven flavonoids application in health and medicine
   Hardening of the arteries and microvascular dysfunction.
Diabetes and its complications.
Gastric ulcer.
Venous disease.
There are female hormonal disorders and women abortion.
X-ray radiation or discharge line therapy of side-effects.
Thrombophlebitis cancer and other blood clotting disorders.
Prevent cancer
Now that the incidence of cancer is divided into at least three stages: start-up stage, promotion stage and development stage. Due to the antioxidant activity of flavonoids and ability to absorb UV light, they all three stages of the carcinogenic process has inhibitory effect. Flavonoids belong to phenolic substances, can be boiled metal ions, thereby effectively inhibit participation by the trace metal ion catalyzed lipid peroxidation processes; at the same time, flavonoids act as antioxidants and free radical quenchers, can effectively prevent cell damage caused by lipid peroxidation, can prevent cell damage and, play a role in anti-cancer tumor suppressor.
Anti-mutagenic effect of flavonoids is very significant. Because so special structural characteristics of flavonoids on, it can absorb ultraviolet light, so that they can protect cells from DNA damage caused by UV [17]. Polyphenols also have anti-mutagenic and anti-cancer effects. Flavonoids also extinguished DNA near the free radicals generated. Another study showed that flavonoids extinguish this radical action plays a major role in the protective effect γ- ray irradiation; and there also has been shown to protect cells from mouse micronucleus reticular Δ- ray damage, they including quercetin, mulberry non-alcoholic, rutin, eriodictyol and sweet clover flavin. It was also found that, after sulfonated contain flavonoids flavanones or drugs, cosmetics can protect the skin from UV radiation effects, to prevent skin cancer.
In addition, bioflavonoids also can reduce or even eliminate some of the carcinogenic chemical carcinogens, such as: kaempferol and rutin can inhibit the carcinogenic aflatoxin B1; fed feed containing 5% quercetin can DMBAS ( 7,12 DMBA) -induced 48 percent lower risk of breast cancer in mice; Quercetin can also inhibit the oxidation of azo-alcohol-induced colorectal cancer in rats.
Off dose regard report also inconsistent. In the "French singular" phenomenon of the survey show that the daily intake of flavonoids reached in cancer mortality compared to less than 19mg and 19mg daily intake of more human, less 75%; the other from the perspective of Immunology study, flavonoid intake from 2.6mg / d ~ crowd 68.2mg / d, which is independent of cancer mortality and intake; if ingested 2.6mg / d will be able to exhibit activity. Existing individual awareness is not the same, or even opposite conclusions in some places, such as on the same level in trace amounts, some flavonoids exhibit in vitro induce and promote cancer; and in vivo experiments but It is good for cancer prevention agent.
The role of the body circulation
Promote micro circulation, keep blood vessels open.
Enhance blood vessel flexibility, maintenance of vascular permeability is good.
Inhibiting blood fat LDL (low density lipoprotein) peroxide, to prevent blood fatty acid defeat and atherosclerosis.
Inhibit platelet aggregation, prevent thrombosis, vascular disease, stroke and high blood pressure, diabetes complications.
By cerebrovascular barrier to protect brain cells and prevent Alzheimer's.
Eight, security
There is no suggestion the amount of bioflavonoids, because so far there is not any deficiency appeared. Usually contain bioflavonoids and vitamin C in the merging of nutritional supplements (usually the ratio is 500mg and 100mg of vitamin bioflavonoids), in addition, a variety of bioflavonoids sold in the market also have contained only Nutritional supplements single component.